In ancient Egyptian religion and mythology, Hathor (also spelled Athor) was the goddess of love, fertility, beauty, music, and laughter and fun. According to one myth, the sun god Ra, in his old age, decided to punish humans for disobeying him. In Egyptian mythology, the sacred cat is the animal incarnation of the goddess Bast or Bastet. Ptah was worshipped right throughout Egypt. She was sometimes given wings in the form of a bird, making her a solar god as well as a god of the dead. Even though she was quite popular, strangely enough she was often ignored or pushed into the background. Hardcover. Well, Amun who as we know was the Egyptian god of the air, sun and the sky was originally shown with red-brown skin. That’s certainly not cool. Guess he wasn’t loved as much anymore. o Lord of the Khemenu Because of this Ptah was the patron of everyone who created handicrafts and worked with metal or stone. Find out more. Also, like her sister, Nephthys was thought to have great magical powers – she was the ‘Mighty One of Words of Power’. The pyramid complex of Giza is guarded by the monolithic Sphinx, a lion with the head of a human. But here are just some of them to give you an idea of who they were.eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'historyforkids_net-box-3','ezslot_4',658,'0','0'])); Many ancient Egyptian gods had symbols which meant different things. Discover more about Egyptian gods. Most were generally benevolent but their favor could not be counted on. By the end of the period of the New Kingdom Thebes became known as ‘Niwt-imn’ meaning ‘The City of Amun.’. Firstly, she was often shown with an ankh when she was sitting, which is the sign of life, and secondly she was also very well-known as a healer as she knew so much about magic and sorcery. This period in time was called ‘Predynastic Egypt’. According to Egyptian mythology he apparently wrote a lot, and all his writing was eventually put into a book called the Book of Troth. In the Book of the Dead he was a master architect, and responsible for building the structure of the universe. Sounds rather strange. Do you have any other facts on Hathor? Seth was the God of chaos, darkness, the desert and drought. Osiris was the oldest son of Geb and Nut who were the first king and queen of Egypt. o Hehet and Heh represented eternity Amenhotep III placed several hundred statues of Sekhmet in his temple. He was the one who looked after the mummification process. He also had white clothing which was a sign of mummification. When Egyptians were being mummified, the head embalmer, who took care of the dead, would often wear an Anubis costume. Wow, he sure was popular. The body was then covered in salt and left to dry for about 40 days. The ancient Egyptians worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses. Ptah was the God of Creation and Craftsmen. His name means ‘he who is the sky’ or ‘the distant one’. Treasury of Egyptian Mythology: Classic Stories of Gods, Goddesses, Monsters & Mortals (National Geographic Kids) Donna Jo Napoli. This was very common in Egyptian mythology. • Nephthys was very popular and was worshipped right throughout Egypt. As we said, Horus was the god of the sky. How scary! Bet you learnt something new. The right eye of Ra represented the sun, and the left eye represented the moon.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'historyforkids_net-leader-1','ezslot_13',665,'0','0'])); Ra, or Re as he’s sometimes called, was one mighty powerful god, that’s for sure. It was believed that these pictures of her on their coffin would help protect the dead against evil. The Eye of Horus became one of the most important symbols in ancient Egypt.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'historyforkids_net-banner-1','ezslot_15',663,'0','0'])); The Eye of Horus was a powerful amulet, which is an ornament or small piece of jewellery that was thought to fight off evil, danger and disease. The boy king became the Pharaoh and was forced by the powerful priests of Amun to leave his home in Armana where they tried to get rid of all traces of Atenism and Akhenaten. She was one ancient Goddess as she was written about in the Old Kingdom writings. This was done in the belief that it would restore the senses of the dead. The colour of Anubis could link him to Osiris, whose green flesh represents the fertile fields. That’s a strange name; she must have been good at helping out! They sure liked to do things differently in those days. There is an ancient myth in which Hathor stood on the Earth as a cow, so that her four legs became pillars holding up the sky, while her belly formed part of the sky. Seth was the opposite of three other major gods, which were Osiris, Horus and Ra. Sekhmet’s father was apparently Ra himself. Because of this Ra was closely linked with the gods Atum, Horus and other sun gods. There were over 2,000 names of gods in Ancient Egypt. After Set had killed Osiris and scattered his remains, Anubis helped Isis and Nephthys to rebuild his body. Would you like to marry a brother or sister? The names of the cults represented the number of major gods worshipped in the cult and the location of the cult centre. He did many jobs in Egyptian mythology including maintaining the universe, settling of arguments among the other Egyptian gods, and he judged those who would die. He is often shown wearing a crown; often this is the Atef crown which was a tall hat with ostrich feathers and a gold disk on top. She became very closely linked to Isis, who eventually became far more popular then Hathor. The largest is the Pyramid of Khufu, also called the Great Pyramid of Giza. He was also associated with both the growth and the decay of vegetation. [ Read: Egyptian Pharaohs Facts For Kids] By the year 1000 BC, almost every tomb that had treasures was believed to be robbed and tomb robbers were punished severely. She was one popular goddess. Ra sailed across the heavens in a boat called the 'Barque of Millions of Years'. It apparently had all the secrets of the universe in it. He was often worshipped under the name of Ptah-Seker-Osiris. He became a faithful helper to Isis. Hathor's Hidden Treasure. Here are a list of facts that will help you understand more about this important God. Her Egyptian name was Nebt-het, which means ‘Mistress of the House’. There were some really well-known and pretty famous gods and goddesses that you might have heard of. He was certainly linked to many different animals and was sometimes shown as just one of them. 78 Egyptian Gods Heka was the son of Khnum, the ram-headed creator god of fertility. o Khenti The first ever mentions of Ra date all the way back to 2686 BC – 2181 BC. Then the people all cut up and ate a cake shaped like a hippopotamus. Hathor was also closely linked to turquoise, malachite, gold and copper. Egyptian Gods. He murdered Osiris, whose son, Horus, later beat him. He also had a false plaited beard that was tightly knotted, plaited and hooked behind the ears. Amun - King of the Egyptian Gods. Egypt Life (story and game) My Daily Life in Ancient Egypt - An Original Story written by a former student of ours (now a teacher!) It was also called the Wadjet Eye. An ibis is a long and slim bird with a curved beak. Apparently if you read it you would get awesome magical powers, but you would also be troubled by a life filled with disaster. They had a son named Harsomtus, also called Ihy or Ahy. Nephthys was the goddess of mourning in the Ancient Egyptian religion. Osiris became pharaoh after Geb and married his sister Isis. Do you think you can make a cake shaped like a hippopotamus? The reason that Anubis was given a jackal head was because jackals would often be found around tombs and graves. The new pharaoh became Horus. These gods could take different forms, usually as animals. Apparently his mother, Nephthys, left her son exposed to the elements. Sobek The god of strength and nature, both feared and respected, a clear god of Pharaohs'. Thoth The god of the underworld. o Jehuti After fighting his uncle Seth, he became the king of Egypt. He was all about evil and darkness. Wow. He also created towns and religious shrines, as well as ceremonies for worship. The pictures of Ra in ancient Egyptian art are found in tombs, temples, manuscripts and hieroglyphics, artefacts and relics of ancient Egypt. The Egyptians saw Seth as the god of darkness, chaos and the desert. Do you know anything else about Nephthys that we might have missed out? She was also often shown riding in a funeral boat that took the dead to the Blessed Land. Anubis The god of The Final Judgement. Death in Sakkara - An Egyptian Adventure (bbc) The Nile File (ancient Egypt game) Hieroglyphics (interactive) A hieroglyphic typewriter (interactive) Hieroglyphics (interactive puzzle) Lost and Found - wake up the gods! As the ‘father of the gods,’ it was natural to the ancient Egyptians that every god should symbolise some form of him, and that he should represent every god. Read on to find out what Isis apparently looked like. There has been evidence uncovered that shows that she was worshipped throughout the ancient world. Horus was certainly one important god as he was worshipped right from the very beginning of the ancient Egyptian period, right through to the end. He was responsible for using an iron knife in the underworld to open the mouths of people who had recently died. The Greeks later named this city Hermopolis Magna. All the symbols and the myths as well as the looks of all the older gods were all mushed up together to form the new god Ra! There are around 70 pyramids along the west bank of the River Nile. History >> Ancient Egypt Religion played a big part in the lives of the Ancient Egyptians. In Upper Egypt, which was the south, in the town of Edfu, there was a temple in Ptolemaic, which was just for Horus. The great structures of this world civilization. Now this is interesting. Finally, the last battle was Horus against Set. He was worshiped as a god of music. The history the ancient Egyptians and the significance of the red, white and double crown of Egypt : Headdresses and Crowns of Egypt Discover the history and religious beliefs surrounding the different types and styles of the crown of Egypt. It looks like a key and supposedly symbolises the idea of eternal life, just like being immortal. Some images of Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses show them with a human body and the head of a bird or an animal. Can you imagine losing an eye and then it growing back? He was there to protect the pharaoh. At the end of each day Ra was thought to die and sailed on his night voyage through the Underworld, leaving the Moon to light the world above. Now that’s rather strange. How big were the pyramids? He also built the supports that held it up. Ancient Egypt. How she looked, as well as her name, which meant “to be strong, mighty, violent” definitely showed her character. Here are some super awesome facts about this goddess who was certainly rather famous! He was described as the god “who has made all gods, men, and animals- he who has created all lands and shores and the ocean in his name ‘fashioner of the earth.’ ” He was the founder of intelligence and had ways to communicate his intelligence. Now that was probably a cool thing to have. He became very unpopular and was an enemy to quite a few gods. $12.99. Some of them looked very much like humans; however others were part human and part animal, where some of them looked like crocodiles, jackals, cats, rams and even falcons. This is a bit gross, but it’s what happened. Early art of Isis shows her wearing a long dress and wearing a crown which had the hieroglyphic symbol for a throne. o Tetu Mummification was very skilled work…you had to be really good at what you did. One of the most famous gods of ancient Egypt was Isis. His wife was called Anput and his daughter, the goddess Kebechet, was associated with purification and washing away of dirt and decay. Some even saw linked him to poisonous creatures like snakes and scorpions. The people of ancient Egypt were forced to change from a religion where they worshipped many gods, to a religion where they worshipped only one god. Khnum The god of pottery and creation. By 1570 BC – 1070 BC, the worship of Ra had become more complicated and people believed that Ra aged with the sun. Many religions only worship one god, whereas the ancient Egyptians worshipped many. She was mostly related to protection, healing, motherhood, children and nature. The colour of his flesh is similar to that of the dark soil along the Nile. Ptah certainly was an interesting god, and looked rather strange. Thoth was said to be the inventor of hieroglyphic writing and the Egyptians believed he gave this to them as a gift. She must have looked rather strange! We already said she was super important, and she certainly was. Bastet was a cat and apparently this showed the gentler side of Sekhmet. The famous Scarab Beetle, seen on so many charms, amulets and the jewellery of the Egyptian gods of ancient Egypt, was a sacred symbol of revival and creation of the Egyptian gods suggesting ideas of transformation and bringing back to life. He was also sometimes shown with a copper knife. The Egyptians usually showed Seth as a man with the head of a fantastic animal that they called the Seth animal. Some people got this name confused and thought that she was a housewife, but that wasn’t so. That was incredibly cruel! Some creation legends say that by speaking the names of all things, Ptah caused them to be. She was always shown as a woman with the symbols for ‘basket’ and ‘house’ on her head. Now that was nice of her! It had a pointed snout, tall, rectangular ears and a thin body like a dog with a long forked tail. They believed he lived in the kingdom of the dead. ©Copyright Mandy Barrow 2013 When Horus beat Seth, he conquered his father, Osiris’, throne, and became protector. Most Egyptian gods represented one principle aspect of the world: Ra was the sun god, for example, and Nut was goddess of the sky. The road to the Temple of Amun in ancient Thebes (now Luxor) was lined with ram headed lion sphinxes, each one guarding between its front legs a statue of the pharaoh. Because of this myth, people often thought of Hathor as Horus’ mother. o Thout o Asten She must have been awesome to be around! After his death, the Pharaoh was said to rise into the sky to join the people who followed Ra. The other gods flooded the fields with a very strong drink that was dyed with red ochre. One of the most famous legends of all time was where Isis’ husband, and of course brother, was killed by their other brother Set. She is one of the oldest Egyptian Goddesses around, and one of the most powerful. History for Kids; On This Day; Ancient Egyptian Gods Gallery. That’s not too cool. 4.7 out of 5 stars 459. Thoth is usually shown as human with the head of an ibis. She is often shown holding a symbol called the Ankh. He was the son of Nun and Naunet, husband of Sekhmet and the father of Nefertum, and later Imhotep. We’d love to hear them. Wonder how he did that. Horus was considered to be very handsome. Seth The god of storms and chaos. © 2021 History for Kids. Egyptians prayed to him so that he could help their dead family members. No one is quite sure who Anubis was the son of. She helped her sister find Osiris’ body and rebuilt him to come back to life. It was best to live a good life and be honest otherwise he would send you to be eaten. One of the most famous animal headed gods was the ibis-headed Thoth, the patron of scribes, writing and science and the inventor of the hieroglyphics. Wow, she must have had a split personality don’t you think? Interesting Facts about the Egyptian Goddess Isis. Wow! o Djehuti He had heaps of names throughout the centuries in which ancient Egypt flourished. o Amaunet and Amun represented air He sure was powerful. Others believed that she was linked to the hot winds of the desert with her breath. 10 Egyptian Gods And Goddesses For Kids: Along with many other civilizations, religion was a crucial part of lives of ancient Egyptians, and they worshiped several Gods and Goddesses. Wow that sounds scary. That must have been one mighty fight! By Barbara Waterson Last updated 2011-03-29. Goddess of Protection and of household entertainment. Egyptian Gods: Hieroglypics: Hierarchy: Ka: Mummies: River Nile: Pharaohs: Pyramids: Rosetta Stone: Scribes: Shaduf: Timeline: Tutankhamun. He was apparently very jealous of them. An oracle is a priest or priestess. His main temple was in the city of Khmun. During the New Kingdom, Amun became the national god of Egypt and head of the state pantheon merged with Ra, the sun god as Amun-Ra. Together with her sister Nephthys; Isis is shown on many ancient coffins. Ra was the most important God. That’s pretty awesome. He sure was very, very important. She was obviously very important. The second battle was Heru-Bekhutet against Set, the God of evil. He also had a tall white, conical headdress called the Atef crown. In Kom Ombo, there was another temple for Horus called the Kom Ombo temple. Apparently the Book of the Dead says that during times of storms and great floods she even had power over the great god of the underworld. $12.99. Apparently Isis was the daughter of Geb, the Earth god and Nut, the goddess of the Sky. The ancient Egyptians worshiped Horus partly because he had the Eye of Horus. He was worshipped far and wide. The ‘Raising the Djed Pillar’ ceremony was a sign of the rebirth of Osiris. He was special and was worshipped widely. Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt (true, false with answers, Sheffield Schools, OH. Anubis’s jackal head was often shown to be black. Wonder which myth is true? He went on to create other creatures from metal, stone, and wood. Later, the tree was cut down by the king of Byblos and was used as a pillar in his palace. Do you know any other facts about Anubis? Osiris was one mighty god of Egypt and was loved by most. Amun was originally a local god, and then he became a member of the eight gods collectively called the Ogdoad of Hermopolis. Hope you’ve found these facts about Horus helpful. The other festival was rather strange indeed. Instead of dying, he was found by Isis, who then raised him. The curved beak apparently symbolises the curve of the moon. Find out more. Wow, she sure had a few jobs on her hands. Uncover the meaning behind these ancient symbols by checking out our awesome hieroglyphics feature. It had 3 symbols on it which were the long pole sceptre, which meant strength, the ankh, which meant life and the djed pillar which meant stability. When Ra sent Hathor out to get revenge for human beings mistreating him, he sent her in the form of Sekhmet, the lioness. She was often called ‘Nesert’ which means the flame. Horus was the Egyptian god of the Sky. He was often seen with a golden tie or necklace. Just to add to the confusion he was also referred to as ‘Re’! Ptah’s wife, the Sekhmet Goddess, was called the “Great Lady, beloved of Ptah, holy one, powerful one.” She was both Ptah’s sister and wife too. As she had this kindness in her, people often linked her to Isis, the mother goddess, but Hathor was also all about destruction. Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. There were some strange pictures of a human head on a bird which symbolised the part of the soul called the Ka and Ba and these were shown in scenes from papyrus such as the Book of the Dead, which set humans apart from the gods of the Underworld. The people saw Amun-Ra as the creative power behind the existence of all life. She was a powerful and respected goddess across many lands. Atum was first worshipped as a minor, local god. Bastet was the Goddess of Protection of joy, love, pleasure and pregnant woman. Read More ; Egyptian Mummies. Some of the Most Important Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. Sekhmet was a goddess of war and always went with the king into battle. That’s not cool! Woodlands Junior School, Hunt Road Tonbridge Kent TN10 4BB UK, facts about ancient egypt for kids Facts about Egypt today ... information on ancient egypt for children. He was mostly linked to being a creator, someone who makes things. As the tree grew it surrounded Osiris and the coffin in its trunk. o Dweller within Senu Ra was also considered to be an underworld god, closely associated with Osiris as Ra resurrected Osiris to rule over the dead. Ancient Egyptians worshipped a huge number of ancient Egyptian gods and Egyptian goddesses. 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