[51] Chewing gum is defined as a food of minimal nutritional value. Chewing gum can come in a variety of formats ranging from 1.4 to 6.9 grams per piece, and products can be differentiated by the consumers’ intent to form bubbles or the sugar/sugarless dichotomy. Chicle did not succeed as a replacement for rubber, but as a gum, which was cut into strips and marketed as Adams New York Chewing Gum in 1871. Around 1850 a gum made from paraffin wax, which is a petroleum product, was developed and soon exceeded the spruce gum in popularity. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-in-chewing-gum-604296 (accessed January 24, 2021). Because the bulk sweeteners absorb heat as they dissolve and have a negative enthalpy, they yield a cooling sensation as they are dissolved in a consumer's saliva. Table 2: Common ingredients in the formulation of modern chewing gum[1][19], sugar, dextrose, glucose or corn syrup, erythritol, isomalt, xylitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, lactitol, aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharine, sucralose, neohesperidine, dihydrichalcone. In other words, chicle is a form of rubber. Chewing gum is a worldwide problem and costs businesses and taxpayers millions of dollars a year to clean up. While hydrophobic polymers beneficially repel water and contribute to chewiness, they also detrimentally attract oil. Polyethylene, one of the most popular components of gum base, belongs to a common group of plastics and is used in products from plastic bags to hula hoops. To make matters worse, unsticking the gum is a challenge because the long polymers of the gum base stretch, rather than break. [2], The cultural tradition of chewing gum seems to have developed through a convergent evolution process, as traces of this habit have arisen separately in many of the early civilizations. [17][18] Black Jack (1884), which is flavored with licorice, Chiclets (1899), and Wrigley's Spearmint Gum were early popular gums that quickly dominated the market and are all still around today. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-in-chewing-gum-604296. Concern has arisen about the possible carcinogenicity of the vinyl acetate (acetic acid ethenyl ester) used by some manufacturers in their gum bases. [2], Gum bases with higher molecular weights are typically used in gums intended to meet bubble-forming expectations. Because the polymers of gum repel water, the water-based saliva system in a consumer's mouth will dissolve the sugars and flavorings in chewing gum, but not the gum base itself. The Canadian government at one point classified the ingredient as a "potentially high hazard substance. While modern American gum does not come from the gum trees, you could try chewing Eucalyptus resin when you find one of these trees. Chewing gum has been around in commercial form for over a century. Chewing gum is a type of confectionery (candy) , traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, although for reasons of economy and quality many modern chewing … [38] Xylitol is a safe sweetener that benefits teeth and saliva production because, unlike most sugars, it is not fermented to acid. Bubble gum typically come in three formats as well: tablets, hollow balls, and cubes or chunks. Orbit Sugar Free sweet mint chewing gum – Coming from the stable of Wrigley this is again a sugar … Originally, chewing gum was made from the latex sap (chicle) of the sapodilla tree or other tree saps. The polymers that make up the main component of chewing gum base are hydrophobic. [57] A 1½-year-old girl required medical attention when she swallowed her gum and four coins, which got stuck together in her esophagus. According to several medical opinions, there seems to be little truth behind the tale. The actual composition of gum base is usually a trade secret. After World War II, chemists learned to make synthetic rubber, which came to replace most natural rubber in chewing gum (e.g., polyethylene and polyvinyl acetate). However, frequent gum swallowing may contribute to the formation of a bezoar or enterolith, which is a sort of intestinal stone. According to the Ford Gum Company, modern gums are made with chicle, natural gums, or human-made latex. [67], "...eventually the normal housekeeping waves in the digestive tract will sort of push it through, and it will come out pretty unmolested. Two years later, paraffin gums became popular. [40] One study has shown that calcium lactate enhances enamel remineralization when added to xylitol-containing gum,[41] but another study showed no additional remineralization benefit from calcium lactate or other calcium compounds in chewing-gum. Gum base- The main ingredient that make your gum 'chewable'. Sometimes beeswax or paraffin wax is used as a gum base. Chewing gum was already present in ancient times. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 00:30. After the saliva is swallowed, it neutralizes acid in the esophagus. [62][63] One example, Rev7 Gum, was briefly for sale from 2010 to 2012. [52] However, many of the ingredients in gum base have uses in inedible products, which raises concern in some consumers. The ingredient that makes your gum 'chewable' is gum base. For nearly two decades, Glee Gum has been one of the only gums made in North America with a gum … This sap was called chicle. Early chewers did not necessarily desire to derive nutritional benefits from their chewable substances, but at times sought taste stimuli and teeth cleaning or breath-freshening capabilities.[3]. When the force of the air being blown into the bubble exceeds the force that the polymers can withstand, the polymers overextend and the bubble pops. Various teams of researchers have developed gum that is less adhesive and degrades within days or weeks. … Gum base is the main ingredient in modern chewing gum. Flavor components in gum exist in liquid, powder or. 0.5% of saliva deals with dental health, since tooth enamel is made of calcium phosphate, those inorganic ions in saliva help repair the teeth and keep them in good condition. To soften gum by increasing flexibility and reducing brittleness by altering the glass transition temperature. [46] Chewing gum can also help with the lack of saliva or xerostomia since it naturally stimulates saliva production. One hypothesis is that chewing gum stimulates the production of more bicarbonate-containing saliva and increases the rate of swallowing. In 2000 a study on Oxford Street, one of London's busiest shopping streets, showed that a quarter of a million black or white blobs of chewing gum were stuck to its pavement. But what exactly is chewing gum? Higher molecular weight gum bases include longer polymers that are able to stretch further, and thus are able to form larger bubbles that retain their shape for a longer time. Modern chewing gum was first developed in the 1860s when chicle was brought from Mexico by the former President, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, to New York, where he gave it to Thomas Adams for use as a rubber substitute. For example, cut and wrap (chunk or cube) pieces are severed straight out of the extruder using a vertical cutter. Many other cultures have chewed gum-like substances made from plants, grasses, and resins. Falling below a pH of 5.5 (which is acidic) causes the saliva to demineralize the teeth. Then, extrusion technology is implemented to smooth, form, and shape the gum. Next, the gum goes through a shaping process that is determined by gum type and consumer demand. Despite this it is commonly found stuck underneath benches, tables, handrails and escalators. To sweeten these early gums, the chewer would often make use of a plate of powdered sugar, which they would repeatedly dip the gum in to maintain sweetness. If the patient chews gum for fifteen minutes for at least four times per day, it will reduce their recovery time by a day and a half. the ancient Mediterranean people already chewed this resin of sweet taste extracted from the seedling of the trees in order to sanitize the teeth and also to freshen their breath. It also bonds strongly with concrete paving. Encapsulated flavors remain incorporated in the gum base longer because the molecules that they are encapsulated in are more easily held within the gum matrix. Chewing sugar-free gum for 20 minutes after a meal helps prevent tooth decay, according to the American Dental Association, because the act of chewing the sugar-free gum produces saliva to wash away bacteria, which protects teeth. Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed in order to be chewed without being swallowed. The interactions of plasticizers within gum base are governed by solubility parameters, molecular weight, and chemical structure. [30] In fact, chewing gum retains its quality for so long that, in most countries, it is not required by law to be labeled with an expiration date. Chewing gum has been with us since the Stone Age – chicle gum was made from the sap of the Sapodilla tree. Neither natural nor synthetic latex are readily degraded by the digestive system. Gum base composition is considered proprietary information known by select individuals within each gum-manufacturing company. The chewing may also pose a distraction to class, and the gum might carry diseases or bacteria from other students. [1] Its texture is reminiscent of rubber because of the physical-chemical properties of its polymer, plasticizer, and resin components, which contribute to its elastic-plastic, sticky, chewy characteristics. Natural or synthetic ingredients (See Table 3). Chewing gum is used as a novel approach for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). [citation needed], Controversy arises as to health concerns surrounding the questionable classification of gum as food, particularly in regard to some alternative uses for gum base ingredients. [17], Food and sucrose have a demineralizing effect upon enamel that has been reduced by adding calcium lactate to food. 2. "[54] However, on January 31, 2010, the Government of Canada's final assessment concluded that exposure to vinyl acetate is not considered to be harmful to human health. This probably led to the first chewing gums sold in 1848 called “spruce gum”. Intensive Sweeteners are often encapsulated to delay the release of flavor. [61] However, likely as a consequence of Singapore's ban, Singapore's pavements are, perhaps uniquely amongst modern cities, free of gum. The Ancient Greeks chewed mastic gum, made from the resin of the mastic tree. In addition to the gum base, chewing gum contains sweeteners, flavorings, and softeners. [66] Her company advertises itself as the "first company in the world to recycle and process chewing gum into a range of new compounds that can be used in the rubber and plastics industry". Throughout history, people in many regions have selected natural… Synthetic gums were first introduced to the U.S. after chicle no longer satisfied the needs of making good chewing gum. Even as far back at 5,000 years ago the act of chewing tree sap has been common in the americas. It is non-digestible and water insoluble, which means you can carry on gnashing away at the stuff and it never seems to break down. Making chewing gum in a factory and the benefits of eating them. [37] Other active ingredients in chewing gum include fluoride, which strengthens tooth enamel, and p-chlorbenzyl-4-methylbenzylpiperazine, which prevents travel sickness. Originally, chewing gum was made from the latex sap of the sapodilla tree (native to Central America). Gum base is a tasteless substance. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), chewing gum is considered a food, as the term “food” means “a raw, cooked, or processed edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient used or intended for use or for sale in whole or in part for human consumption, or chewing gum”. This candy comes from a birch tree resin. Advertised products on the website are pencils, coffee mugs, guitar picks, a "bicycle spoke", rulers, sports cones, frisbees, boomerangs, door stops, "meal mates", lunch-boxes, and combs. The first flavored chewing gum was created in the 1860s by John Colgan, a Louisville, Kentucky, pharmacist. Chewing gum has already been invented many years ago from spruce sap and beeswax. 35 adult volunteers chewed gum for 10 to 15 minutes before or after three meals each day for 4 weeks. ThoughtCo. These four ingredients are known to come from animals. What Is in Chewing Gum? Up until WWII, chewing gum was made of a substance called chicle mixed with flavorings. Chewing gum after a colon surgery helps the patient recover sooner. However, if you swallow your gum it will almost certainly be excreted, usually in pretty much the same condition as when you swallowed it. [2] Information about the other components of chewing gum are more accessible to the public and they are listed in Table 2. [50] Sham feeding is the role of the central nervous system in the regulation of gastric secretion. The precise mechanism by which gum chewing improves cognitive functioning is however not well understood. The company is called Gum-tec, and the collection containers are dubbed "gumdrops". Paraffin wax is a byproduct of refined petroleum.[53]. Furthermore, the researchers noted that no improvement could be found for verbal fluency, which is in accordance with previous studies. It provides all the basic textural and masticatory properties of gum. The stickiness of gum results from this hydrophobic nature, as gum can form bonds and stick when it makes contact with oily surfaces[2] such as sidewalks, skin, hair, or the sole of one's shoe. Peoples of the Mediterranean have since antiquity chewed the sweet resin of the mastic tree (so named after the custom) as a tooth cleanser and breath freshener. The popular artificial sweetener aspartame is still found in 85% of all chewing gum. The last U.S. manufacturer to use chicle is Glee Gum. Elastomers add flexibility. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. It does this by stimulating saliva, which essentially washes out the mouth. However, in 2004 the government allowed sugarless gum to be sold in pharmacies if a doctor or dentist prescribed it due to the Singapore–United States Free Trade Agreement. [58] As long as the mass of gum is small enough to pass out of the stomach, it will likely pass out of the body easily,[59] but it is recommended that gum not be swallowed or given to young children who do not understand not to swallow it. The physical and chemical properties of chewing gum impact all aspects of this product, from manufacturing to sensory perception during mastication. [42], Other studies[43] indicated that the caries preventive effect of chewing sugar-free gum is related to the chewing process itself rather than being an effect of gum sweeteners or additives, such as polyols and carbamide. To cognitive testing medicinal benefits over 650,000 metric tons of chewing gum is a sap... Improvement could be found for verbal fluency, which is a latex sap that comes from the resin a. Sold in 1848 called “ spruce gum ” additional benefit nutritional value whereas intensive are. Is domain specific longer than the bulking agents because they have a movement... 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