Also - how was the plague interpreted historically?  De Crespigny suggests that the plagues led to the rise of the cult faith healing millenarian movement led by Zhang Jue (d. 184), who instigated the disastrous Yellow Turban Rebellion (184–205). The swift spread of the disease continues to astonish historians and epidemiologists. The Antonine Plague, which flared up during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from 165 AD and continued under the rule of his son Commodus, played such a major role that the pathocenosis in the Ancient World was changed. Lucian of Samosata's irony-laden account of the charlatan Alexander of Abonoteichus records a verse of his "which he despatched to all the nations during the pestilence... was to be seen written over doorways everywhere", particularly in the houses that were emptied, Lucian further remarks. All of the terms people keep throwing around need to be defined. Watch Queue Queue. Since the beginnings of the "3rd century crisis" discussions the infamous epidemic called Antonine or Galen plague has represented one of the featuring part within the whole process. Scientists discover a link between the Justinian plague and the Black Death and say a new strain of plague could still infect humanity. The decline in the population over the long run greatly weakened the economy and made it more difficult to guard the frontier. For years, those northern groups had pressed south in search of more lands to sustain their growing populations. I am learning about Roman history and just learned about the Antonine Plague and how it completely ravaged the Roman empires population. Plagues that Brought Down Empires April 22, 2020 April 22, 2020 daniel Antonine Plague , Crisis of the Third Century , Great Mortality , How Smallpox and Measles Gave Spain an Empire , Plague of Cyprian , Plague of Galen , plagues , Plagues that Brought Down Empires , smallpox and measles , the Antonine and Cyprian Plagues , The Antonine Plague , The Black Death , The Black Death vs. "There is not enough evidence satisfactorily to identify the disease or diseases", concluded J. F. Gilliam in his summary (1961) of the written sources, with inconclusive Greek and Latin inscriptions, two groups of papyri and coinage. Looks like you're using new Reddit on an old browser. The Antonine Plague. The Plague of Justinian arrived in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, in 541 CE. The plague affected Roman culture and literature and may have severely affected Indo-Roman trade relations in the Indian Ocean. See. "Galen and the Antonine Plague". When imperial forces moved east, under the command of Emperor Verus, after the forces of Vologases IV of Parthia attacked Armenia, the Romans' defense of the eastern territories was hampered when large numbers of troops succumbed to the disease. 270) were outbreaks of two different diseases, one of smallpox and one of measles but not necessarily in that order. From 167 to his death, Marcus Aurelius personally commanded legions near the Danube, trying, with only partial success, to control the advance of Germanic peoples across the river. I don't have much to add to the particular question, but you might be interested in reading about the Justinian plague and how it affected the late roman empire as well :), New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast.  Chinese histories also insist that further Roman embassies came to China by way of Rinan in Vietnam in 226 and 284 AD, where Roman artifacts have been found. The Antonine Plague, as it came to be known, would reach every corner of the empire and is what most likely claimed the life of Lucius Verrus himself in 169—and possibly that of his co-emperor Marcus Marcus Aurelius Aurelius in 180.1 The pestilentia that swept through the … While the Antonine Plague that swept through the Roman Empire in 165–180 CE may have been caused by smallpox, Saint Nicasius of Rheims became the patron saint of smallpox victims for having supposedly survived a bout in 450, and … The plague may have claimed the life of a Roman emperor, Lucius … , Although Ge Hong was the first writer of traditional Chinese medicine who accurately described the symptoms of smallpox, the historian Rafe de Crespigny mused that the plagues afflicting the Eastern Han Empire during the reigns of Emperor Huan of Han (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling of Han (r. 168–189) – with outbreaks in 151, 161, 171, 173, 179, 182, and 185 – were perhaps connected to the Antonine plague on the western end of Eurasia. Story and Analysis of the Antonine Plague, Plague of Justinian, Black Death in the time of an Epidemic Welcome back to another article by the Byzantium Blogger!This one here is a special edition article made for times like this when a pandemic is ongoing and seems to be getting worse. Referred to as the Antonine Plague(after emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus), this epidemic did what hordes of … Furthermore, this historical examination will seek to shatter the sensibilities of a twenty-first-century Western audience, centuries detached from the apocalyptic experiences of their predecessors.  Ammianus Marcellinus reported that the plague spread to Gaul and to the legions along the Rhine. Antonine Plague Deaths: ... Like the Plague of Justinian, the Black Death was caused by the bubonic plague. The Antonine Plague of 165 to 180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (after Galen, the physician who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought to the Roman Empire by troops who were returning from campaigns in the Near East.Scholars have suspected it to have been either smallpox or measles. Three of the deadliest pandemics in recorded history were caused by a single bacterium, Yersinia pestis, a fatal infection otherwise known as the plague. Posted by Powee Celdran. One thousand years after the Crisis of the Third Century, another plague brought down several huge empires – those of the Mongols. Diagnosis and Parallels DiagnosisCurrent research continues to identify the Antonine plague as smallpox. Plague is a serious bacterial infection that's transmitted primarily by fleas. 249–268. The Mongols. He describes the plague as "great… The spread of the epidemic was favoured by the occurrence of two military episodes i … there are no more victims left, some people have natural immunity or developed immunity by recovering from the disease, or have isolated themselves from all contact with other people until the disease … Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. Known as both the Antonine Plague and the Plague of Galen, the pandemic did eventually subside, seemingly as mysteriously as it had come. Bruun, Christer, "The Antonine Plague and the 'Third-Century Crisis'," in Olivier Hekster, Gerda de Kleijn, Danielle Slootjes (ed.). Epidemiology. 19 But inevitably there is regional variation. ------------------------------------------------------------ He was present at the outbreak among troops stationed at Aquileia in the winter of 168/69. The Antonine Plague of 165 to 180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. The Antonine Plague savaged the Roman Empire in the late 2nd Century AD. 18 A mean fatality-rate of 25-30% is sometimes suggested. The ancient world never recovered from the blow inflicted on it by the plague which visited it in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. When we talk about ''the'' plague, we're usually talking about the one that killed off millions of Europeans in the medieval era. , The epidemic had drastic social and political effects throughout the Roman Empire. Gary K. Young (2001), Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC – AD 305, London & New York: Routledge, "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries", "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries. AFAIK, research indicates a fatality of about a third of the population, which would be less than the black plague. The Antonine Plague broke out in 165 or 166 and devastated the population of the Roman Empire, causing the deaths of five million people. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 11:28. With their ranks thinned by the epidemic, Roman armies were now unable to push the tribes back. Dominic Perring, “Two Studies on Roman London.  The total death count has been estimated at 5 million, and the disease killed as much as one third of the population in some areas and devastated the Roman army. In this paper we shall discuss the first of these epidemics, studying the possible effects, such as demography or economical disturbances, on a regional and The Black Death vs. It was a big deal.  According to the contemporary Roman historian Cassius Dio, the disease broke out again nine years later in 189 AD and caused up to 2,000 deaths a day in Rome, one quarter of those who were affected. Edward Gibbon (1737–1794) and Michael Rostovtzeff (1870–1952) assigned the Antonine plague less influence than contemporary political and economic trends, respectively. To achieve this goal, two pandemic plagues, Antonine and The Black Death, will be historically examined in light of sound Christian teachings and perspectives. Dio Cassius, LXXII 14.3–4; his book that would cover the plague under Marcus Aurelius is missing; the later outburst was the greatest of which the historian had knowledge. Plague vs. Pandemic: What Is the Difference? " During the Marcomannic Wars, Marcus Aurelius wrote his philosophical work Meditations. The Antonine Plague struck during the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the late 160s. the Antonine plague, or the plague of Galen, and the plague of Cyprian.  He also stated that "it may be only chance" that the outbreak of the Antonine plague in 166 coincides with the Roman embassy of "Daqin" (the Roman Empire) landing in Jiaozhi (northern Vietnam) and visiting the Han court of Emperor Huan, claiming to represent "Andun" (安敦; a transliteration of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus or his predecessor Antoninus Pius). It was a pandemic brought back to Italy from the … The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals.Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year world… The site may not work properly if you don't, If you do not update your browser, we suggest you visit, Press J to jump to the feed. Plague-ridden fleas hitched a rid… Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Black Death Network combines two axes, one on the crisis of the 14th century and one on the history of plague (caused by Yersinia pestis), both intersecting at the Black Death (1346-1353).Infamous for killing 30–60% of the European population, the Black Death was only one among multiple disasters of the profoundly tumultuous 14th century following harvest failures … In 166, during the epidemic, the Greek physician and writer Galen traveled from Rome to his home in Asia Minor. The information that was provided by Galen did not clearly define the nature of the disease, but scholars have generally preferred to diagnose it as smallpox. Until recently it was thought that the Antonine Plague could possibly have been a measles epidemic. Thanks! , The angel of death striking a door during the plague of Rome: an engraving by Levasseur after. AFAIK, research indicates a fatality of about a third of the population, which would be less than the black plague. I was curious to know if it was as severe as the black plague that came later and if so what were the differences between the two? /r/History is a place for discussions about history. The pandemic emerged before 155CE in China and then spread westwards along the Silk Road. , Raoul McLaughlin wrote that the Roman subjects visiting the Han Chinese court in 166 could have ushered in a new era of Roman Far East trade, but it was a "harbinger of something much more ominous" instead.  The latter view is bolstered by molecular estimates that place the evolution of measles sometime after 1000 AD. See Duncan-Jones, “Antonine Plague.” 7. 17 This disease may confer some immunity on survivors, but its impact on a virgin population can be catastrophic. Antonine Plague: This is sometimes referred to as the Plague of Galen. Evidence indicates less significant, but mostly we don't really have a way of estimating the consequences of the Antonine Plague, as we lack proper quantitave sources to estimate its impact, compared to the Black Death. Black Plague (1347-1352) Justinian’s plague (540-542) Spanish flu or Influenza (1918-1919) Smallpox and Native Americans (518 -1650) Antonine plague (165-166) The Asian flu (1956-1957) The smallpox epidemic in India (mid-1970s) Cholera (1926-1832) The Great Plague in London (1664-1665) The plague of Athens (-430 to -426 BC) AIDS (1981-present) The Antonine plague, and its twin, the Cyprian plague – both now widely thought to have been caused by a smallpox strain – ravaged the Roman Empire from A.D. 165 to 262. , In 166, during the epidemic, the Greek physician and writer Galen travelled from Rome to his home in Asia Minor and returned to Rome in 168, when he was summoned by the two Augusti, the co-emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Other historians believe that both outbreaks involved smallpox.  The plague would kill roughly 10% of the Roman population, as cited by McLaughlin, causing "irreparable" damage to the Roman maritime trade in the Indian Ocean as proven by the archaeological record spanning from Egypt to India as well as significantly decreased Roman commercial activity in Southeast Asia. This video is unavailable. The Antonine Plague, AD 165-180, also known as the Plague of Galen, who described it, was an ancient pandemic, either of smallpox or measles, brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. A: London’s Military Origins; B: Population Decline and Ritual Landscapes in Antonine London,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 24 (2011), pp. A major offensive against the Marcomanni was postponed to 169 because of a shortage of imperial troops. Make sure to familiarize yourself with our rules and guidelines before participating. Here is a cheat sheet. , Australian sinologist and historian Rafe de Crespigny speculates that the plague may have also broken out in Eastern Han China before 166 because of notices of plagues in Chinese records. As he lay dying, he uttered the words, "Weep not for me; think rather of the pestilence and the deaths of so many others." , In their consternation, many turned to the protection offered by magic. The disease broke out again nine years later, according to the Roman historian Dio Cassius (155–235), … This may have contributed to a gradual decline in the Roman population from 165 until 400. ", Rats, Lice and History: A Chronicle of Disease, Plagues, and Pestilence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antonine_Plague&oldid=998652072, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. What Rome Learned From the Deadly Antonine Plague of 165 A.D. ... Victims were known to endure fever, chills, upset stomach and diarrhea that turned from red to black over the course of a week.  However, as evidenced by the 3rd-century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and the 6th-century Christian Topography by Cosmas Indicopleustes, Roman maritime trade into the Indian Ocean, particularly in the silk and spice trades, certainly did not cease but continued until the loss of Egypt to the Muslim Rashidun Caliphate. Evidence indicates less significant, but mostly we don't really have a way of estimating the consequences of the Antonine Plague, as we lack proper quantitave sources to estimate its impact, compared to the Black Death. Scholars have suspected it to have been either smallpox or measles. , Some direct effects of the contagion stand out. A passage (IX.2) states that even the pestilence around him was less deadly than falsehood, evil behaviour and lack of true understanding. It took place between 165-180 A.D. The Antonine Plague rendered the empire of Ancient Rome a kind of Hell. Watch Queue Queue Additionally, was the plague of Cyprian also related to the Antonine plague? It was carried over the Mediterranean Sea from Egypt, a recently conquered land paying tribute to Emperor Justinian in grain. What Is Worse? The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United States. 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